With colorful, star-shaped flowers, lilies add elegance and fragrance to any garden. You will enjoy their magnificent blooms from spring through the first frost by carefully blending the lily’s early, midseason, and late varieties into your garden. Learn more about choosing, planting, and growing lilies.
Everyone loves lilies! Grown from bulbs, lilies are perennials that require minimal care if planted correctly. Most lilies do well in containers and look spectacular in a vase.
True lilies belong to the genus Lilium and grow from plump, scaly bulbs. Several popular lily species exist, including Orientals, Asiatics, Orienpets, and Species types.
We say “true” lilies because there are also plants, such as daylilies, peace lilies, and canna lilies, which have the term “lily” in their common name, but they’re not actually lilies at all. They do not grow from bulbs but are in a different plant genus. Water lilies aren’t lilies at all, and neither are lily-of-the-valley.
With 8,000 or so varieties, lilies parade an endless range of colors, shapes, heights, and bewitching scents. Lilies have six plain or strikingly marked tepals (“petals”) and are often trumpet-shaped, sitting atop a tall, erect stem with narrow, long, lance-shaped leaves. They come in many beautiful colors, including pink, gold, red, orange, and white.
Most lilies also take readily to containers at home in formal and naturalistic settings. Plus, they make excellent cut flowers!
To create a sequence of Lily blooms in your garden, remember that Asiatics generally flower first, followed by Orienpets and then Oriental varieties.
Asiatic lilies (Lilium sp. - “Asiatic hybrids”) are the earliest to bloom (usually in May or June), right after peonies. They are also the easiest to grow, as long as they are planted in well-draining soil, not waterlogged. They are the shortest type of lily (about 2 to 3 feet tall) and come in many colors, from pastel to tropical. Hybrids come in pure white, pinks, vivid yellows, oranges, and reds; heights are from one to six feet. Intense breeding has erased much of the Asiatics’ fragrance, but despite their lack of perfume, they are a favorite with floral arrangers.
Oriental lilies (Lilium sp. - “Oriental hybrids”) have that famously intoxicating fragrance. They are tall and stately (4 feet), and tend to grow more slowly. Oriental hybrids bloom in mid- to late summer, just when Asiatic lilies are beginning to fade. Orientals are always a striking choice, producing masses of huge white, pink, red, or bi-color blooms. They make wonderful cut flowers that fill even the largest rooms with spicy scents.
Easter lilies(Lilium longifolium) are most commonly grown indoors as a holiday plant. As their name suggests, they are typically forced into bloom around Easter, in March or April. Outdoors, they are better suited for warmer regions of North America, where they can be planted in the garden after blooming has finished. These are generally hardy to Zone 5 (and to Zone 4 if given 1 to 2 feet of mulch in autumn for winter protection).
Trumpet lilies (Lilium sp. - “Trumpet hybrids”) are similar to oriental lilies, producing many blooms with a nice scent. Their flowers tend to be smaller and more closed (like a trumpet) than those of the other lilies.
There are other lilies out there, of course, such as tiger lilies(Lilium henryi) and Turk’s cap lilies (Lilium superbum), as well as hybrids like “Orienpet” (Oriental + Trumpet) and “LA” lilies (Easter + Asiatic). Browse through your favorite online gardening retailer’s catalog to find what you like best!
Lilies need lots of sun. For dependable blooms, lilies should get 6 to 8 hours of direct sunlight daily (aka “full sun”). If it’s too shady, the stems will attempt to lean toward the sun or get spindly and fall over.
Also, a well-drained site is critical. Water trapped beneath the scales may rot the bulb. How can you tell if your site drains well? After a good rain, find a spot that is the first to dry out. Enrich the soil with leaf mold, compost, or well-rotted manure to encourage good drainage. Learn more about soil amendments and preparing soil for planting.
Most popular varieties prefer acidic to neutral soil, but some are lime-tolerant or prefer alkaline soils (e.g., Madonna lilies).
When to Plant Lilies
Lilies are commonly planted in the fall but can be planted in the spring in areas with harsh winters.
In the fall, plant at least four weeks before your first fall frost date. Bulbs planted in the autumn will have well-established roots in the spring. The bulbs benefit from a winter chill to produce big blooms.
In the spring, plant as soon as the threat of frost has passed.
Container-grown lily plants can be planted anytime during the early summer.
Buy the bulbs close to planting time. Because lily bulbs don’t go dormant, they will deteriorate over time, so don’t plan to buy bulbs in the fall and wait until spring to plant them.
How to Plant Lilies
Loosen the soil to a depth of 12 to 15 inches.
Plant lilies three times as deep as the bulbs are high. The deep planting encourages the developing stem to send out roots to help stabilize the plant and perhaps eliminate the need for staking. Also, deep planting keeps lily bulbs cool when temperatures soar.
Set the bulb in the hole pointy side up.
Fill the hole with soil and tamp gently. (Got critters? Bury the bulbs in wire cages to protect them from getting eaten.)
Space bulbs at a distance equal to three times the bulb’s diameter (usually about 8 to 18 inches apart, depending on the variety).
For visual appeal, plant lilies in groups of three to five if space allows; crowding leads to poor circulation and gray mold in
Apply a high-potassium liquid fertilizer every 2 weeks from planting until 6 weeks after flowering.
Apply a thin layer of compost each spring, followed by a 2-inch layer of mulch.
Stake tall lilies.
Lilies do not bloom more than once per season, but you can remove the faded flowers so that the plants don’t waste energy making seeds.
After the lily blooms, you can also remove just the stem itself. However, do NOT remove leaves until they have died down and turned brown in the fall. It’s very important not to cut back the leaves until the end of their season because they help provide nourishment to the bulb for next season’s blooms.
Cut down the dead stalks in the late fall or early spring.
Before winter, add 4 to 6 inches of mulch, simply to delay the ground freeze and allow the roots to keep growing. Leave the mulch until spring, once the last hard frost has passed. See your local frost dates. See your local frost dates.
If your region doesn’t have snow cover, keep the soil moist in winter.
When lily shoots grow through the mulch in the spring, start to remove it gradually.
Divide plants every 3 to 4 years as new growth begins in the spring. Just lift the plants and divide the clumps. Replant the new bulbs adding some compost.
There are many types of lilies that bloom at different times. With careful planning, you can enjoy lilies all summer long by planting bulbs from different varieties.
Asiatic lilies are the earliest to bloom and the easiest to grow. With their upward-facing flowers, they bloom early to midsummer. Hardy in Zones 4 to 9, Asiatic lilies come in pure white, pink, vivid yellow, orange, and red. Intense breeding has erased much of the Asiatics’ fragrance, but despite their lack of perfume, they are a favorite with floral arrangers.
‘Patricia’s Pride’: white flowers brushed with deep purple; about 32 inches tall; blooms in early to midsummer
‘Gran Paradiso’: large (4- to 5-inch) red flowers; 3 to 4 feet tall; hardy in Zones 3 to 8; blooms in early to midsummer
Trumpet lilies bloom mid-summer. Tall with trumpet-shaped flowers, they are hardy in Zones 5 to 9. Trumpet lilies grow many blooms (12 to 15 per stalk!) and have a wonderfully heady, sweet fragrance.
‘Album’, aka regal lily: white flowers; up to 6 feet tall; blooms in midsummer
‘Yellow Planet’: extra-large, buttery yellow flowers; 4 feet tall; blooms in mid- to late summer
Oriental hybrids end the season, blooming in mid- to late summer, just when Asiatic lilies are beginning to fade. From tiny 2-footers to towering 8-foot-tall giants, Orientals are always a striking choice (the shorter ones are great for patio beds or container gardens). Adored for their intoxicating fragrance that intensifies after dark, Oriental lilies produce masses of huge white, pink, red, or bi-color blooms. They make wonderful cut flowers that will fill even the largest of rooms with their spicy scents.
‘Black Beauty’: dark red, 5-inch, funnel-shape flowers; 5 to 6 feet tall; blooms in mid- to late summer
‘Casa Blanca’: white flowers; 3 to 4 feet tall; blooms in mid- to late summer
‘Stargazer’: large, deep pink, white-edge flowers; 2 to 3 feet tall; blooms in mid- to late summer
Native lilies provide a range of options; here are a few:
Turk’s cap lily: densely spotted orange flowers; 4 to 7 feet tall; blooms in midsummer
Canada lily: yellow to orange-red flowers; 3 to 8 feet tall; blooms in late spring to midsummer
Wood lily: North America’s most wide-ranging lily; orange, pink-to-red flowers; 1 to 3 feet tall; blooms in July and August
Displaying Lilies in Vases
Lilies make wonderful cut flowers. However, avoid cutting off more than a third of the stem. Taking more than that can reduce the plant’s vigor and longevity since the plant needs its foliage to create energy.
If you are growing lilies strictly for cut flowers, consider planting them in a designated cutting garden, where you can plant fresh bulbs each year.
When cutting lilies, choose those with buds that are just about to open, with a bit of the flower color showing. The higher-up buds will open as the bottom ones fade.
Just one lily stem in a vase can be a show-stopper.
As soon as you get lilies inside, trim the stem ends an inch or so, making a diagonal cut with a sharp knife.
If you worry that the orange pollen of lilies might cause stains, simply snip off the stamens in the flower’s center.
Before arranging in a vase, remove the lower leaves on the stems so that no foliage will be underwater.
To help prolong the flowers’ life, add cut-flower food to the water. Lilies require only half the amount of food recommended for other flowers.
It’s important to note that lilies are highly toxic to our feline friends. If you have cats, we do not recommend cutting lilies to bring inside, because even the pollen can cause tragic consequences. Learn more about Plants That Are Toxic to Cats, Dogs, and Other Pets.
How to Save Your Easter Lilly
These stunning seasonal potted blooms can be enjoyed in the garden for years. Allow the flowers to fade and remove each in its turn. Set the pot in the sun and treat it as a houseplant, fertilizing when watering, until the leaves yellow. In mid-May, remove the bulb from its pot and plant it outdoors in a protected but sunny spot. New growth will soon emerge. Typically, during the first outdoor season, Easter lilies bloom in late September. In ensuing years, they will reach a height of about 3 feet.
Wit and Wisdom
The name “lily” can be misleading because many other plants use it besides true lilies. Daylilies and water lilies aren’t lilies at all, and neither are lilies-of-the-valley or lilyturf. With so many other plants using the name “lily,” it seems that identity theft has existed since long before using computers and credit cards!
Easter lilies can be planted in the ground in the spring. They may survive several years if you mulch them heavily in the fall, especially in northern regions. If they survive, they’ll bloom in late summer.
In a flower bed, lilies prosper in the presence of low-growing plants that protect the lilies’ roots from drying out.
Gray mold is sometimes a problem, especially in a wet, cool spring or summer. Make sure lilies are not crowded and have plenty of air circulation. Rot can also be a concern.
Viruses, spread by aphids, may be troublesome, although some cultivars are virus-tolerant.